# Investigating Resistance in a Wire

This section covers the required practical for investigating resistance in a wire, a key experiment in **GCSE Physics Electricity**.

The independent variable is the length of the wire, while the dependent variable is the resistance. Control variables include the type of metal and diameter of the wire. The conclusion states that as the wire length increases, so does its resistance.

**Highlight**: Understanding the relationship between wire length and resistance is crucial for **GCSE Physics Electricity exam questions and answers**.

The practical also investigates series and parallel circuits with resistors. In series circuits, adding resistors increases total resistance, while in parallel circuits, adding resistors decreases overall resistance.

**Example**: In a series circuit with two 5Ω resistors, the total resistance would be 10Ω. In a parallel circuit with the same resistors, the total resistance would be 2.5Ω.

# I-V Relationships in Circuits

This section explores the investigation of current-voltage (I-V) relationships in circuits, another crucial **GCSE Physics Electricity** practical.

The experiment uses various components such as filament bulbs, ohmic conductors, and diodes. The independent variable is potential difference (volts), and the dependent variable is current (amperes).

**Vocabulary**: I-V characteristics refer to the relationship between current and voltage in an electrical component.

Students are expected to set up circuits and measure current and potential difference, then plot graphs of their results.

# Equations and Mathematics

This section provides essential equations for **GCSE Physics Electricity revision notes**.

Key equations include:
• Charge: Q = It
• Potential difference: V = IR
• Energy transferred: E = Pt and E = QV
• Power: P = VI and P = I²R

**Definition**: Power (P) is the rate at which energy is transferred or work is done, measured in watts (W).

The section also covers unit conversions, such as 1kW = 1000W, which is crucial for solving **GCSE Physics Electricity exam questions**.

# Static Electricity

Static electricity is explained as a build-up of charge caused by friction. When materials are rubbed together, electrons transfer, resulting in positive and negative charges.

**Highlight**: Understanding static electricity is essential for **O level Physics electricity notes PDF** and **A level Physics electricity notes PDF**.

The concept of electric fields is introduced, explaining that charged objects create fields that become stronger at closer distances. Field lines are used to visualize these fields, always pointing from positive to negative charges.

# Resistance and I-V Characteristics

This section delves into resistance and the I-V characteristics of various circuit components, crucial topics in **Electricity GCSE Physics**.

The fundamental equation V = IR (voltage = current × resistance) is presented.

I-V characteristic graphs are explained for three components:

- Ohmic conductor: Shows a straight line, indicating direct proportionality between current and voltage.
- Filament lamp: The graph becomes less steep as current increases due to temperature rise.
- Diode: Current flows in only one direction, with high resistance in the opposite direction.

**Example**: For an ohmic conductor, doubling the voltage would result in doubling the current, maintaining a constant resistance.