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AS level SC differences example essay

11/07/2022

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Name: Emily Hilton
Item B
Social class differences in achievement are found at all stages of the education system
and sociologists have put

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Name: Emily Hilton
Item B
Social class differences in achievement are found at all stages of the education system
and sociologists have put

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Name: Emily Hilton
Item B
Social class differences in achievement are found at all stages of the education system
and sociologists have put

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Name: Emily Hilton Item B Social class differences in achievement are found at all stages of the education system and sociologists have put forward several explanations for these differences. Some sociologists focus on factors outside school, such as the material circumstances of pupils' families or the ways in which parents socialise their children. Other sociologists see factors internal to the education system itself as responsible. However, it can be argued that it is the interaction between these external and internal factors that produces class differences in educational achievement. Applying material from Item B and your knowledge, evaluate sociological explanations of social class differences in educational achievement. [30 marks] In general, social class differences in educational achievement are a significant danger to young people's achievements. Summed up, working class students have innate and environmental factors that result in their underachievement in both primary and secondary education whereas middle class students experience significantly different treatments in terms of their education- and this is both inside and outside of the classroom. In general, external and internal factors link, for example (educational policies, including the use of league tables lead to polarisation and self-fulfilling prophecies inside school.) This shows that things that happen to a child's life outside of school can impact what happens inside school and vice versa. Item B suggests that...

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Alternative transcript:

'sociologists have put forward several explanations for these differences. One way in which these differences can be explained is the idea of cultural deprivation. Cultural deprivation is the idea that a working class child is deprived of the social aspects of life needed to thrive in the harsh and deliberating education system. There are three main aspects of cultural deprivation: the language in which a child uses, the impact of the extent of a parent's education and working-class subculture. Generally, one of the most important factors of cultural deprivation is a parent's education. Leon Feinstein argued that a parent's own education is the most important factor affecting children's achievement as a parent who has all the necessary language needed to achieve. He further argues that middle class children's parents are able to give their children a further advantage because if a parent gives all of their efforts and positive influence onto their child, they will likely in return become influenced and therefore gain a better achievement in their education. However, critics mark this study as too deterministic as it is practically implying that all working class children underachieve, but this is not always the case as some do achieve despite the unavoidable obstacles facing working-class children and their education. Additionally, Item B suggests 'Some sociologists focus on factors outside of school such as the material circumstances of pupils' families'. This could be related to the aspects of material deprivation. Material deprivation refers to the study of poverty and a lack of material necessities such as adequate housing and income. It is a necessity that for students to survive the harsh education system, they need to have the correct materials and technology to achieve- and this is what the working class do not have. Sociologist Emily Tanner et al found that the cost of terms such as transport, equipment and books etc... places a heavy burden on families and as a result this leads to stigmatisation or bullying from a child's education, directly affecting a child's education. This is a linking factor of internal and external education, as the thing that happens outside of school (material deprivation) immediately affects what happens at school- bullying and targitisation of the working class. On the other hand, there are some criticisms to this view as it is almost outdated, as many schools allow children to have access to computers within schools and programmes like sure start which attempted to tackle poverty and material deprivation, many more of these programmes are developing to tackle material deprivation and poverty within the working class, which is a significant issue in the educational system. Name: Emily Hilton Furthermore, Item B states that 'families socialise their children in different ways. A further factor evaluating sociological explanations for class underachievement is the process of socialisation, a form of cultural deprivation, in both primary and secondary. Primary socialisation occurs in the household at a young age and is where children learn the basic skills and knowledge of language and basic human traits and is essential for success in education, this would be seen as an external factor of educational achievement, and if it is not done right and children are deprived of it there would be significant effects thereafter. Linking onto this, an internal factor of education that is related to socialisation is secondary education which is done throughout wider society and in this instance, would be in school. Both of these socialisation factors, whether through the family or through the education system are essential and are only really done properly in middle class families and middle class education sectors. The main reason why these factors are important is because children need to know the basics of language, etiquette and norms in order to thrive and not get disrupted. Although the socialisation processes are seen to fail in working class households, this is not always the case and children surpass this and succeed, ultimately making this view too deterministic and restrictive. Also, on the other hand, Item B suggests that 'other sociologists see factors internal to the education system itself as responsible. One aspect of this is the idea of labelling within classrooms. Labelling is when you attach a meaning or definition to a person, this is usually in the classroom and towards working class students. An important study and sociologist Howard Becker (1971) performed an important interactionist experiment where sixty Chicago high school teachers were interviewed and they found that they all judged pupils according to how close they were to the 'ideal pupil'. However, there are some criticisms of this study. Firstly, Marxists would argue that the labelling theory ignores the wider structures of power within which labelling takes place as well as that labels come from the fact that teachers work in a system that reproduces class systems. Despite all of these factors labelling is a very important issue, that is generally either a conscious and targeted technique or a subconscious and unaware way of dividing children of different classes and targeting them to fail. The final factor, relating to class differences of achievement in education is the concept of streaming. Streaming is the separation of children into different abilities or classes and they are taught separately into their different abilities which can in general damaging to their education as it separates them from others of different classes or abilities making them feel unvalid and insecure about their abilities, in turn ruining their ability to do well in school. This idea of streaming turns into the concept of self-fulfilling prophecies which are predictions that come true by the idea of it being made. This is a major issue as it is deliberating children's confidence and making them internalise the teacher's expectation which becomes part of their everyday movement, affecting them constantly. The interlinking concepts of streaming and self-fulfilling prophecies were investigated by Douglas who found that children placed in a lower stream at age 8 had suffered a decline in their IQ at age 11 and in contrast those placed in a higher stream at age 8 had improved their performance IQ score by age 11. These findings do suggest strongly that streaming and the consequences of it have a huge impact on achievement in education as they shape their futures by separating them and shaping their futures. However, a major criticism of the streaming and self-fulfilling prophecies is the fact that it doesn't always lead to failure. It " can, potentially lead to a positive impact on one's education- they may encourage students they are good at something and push them to do well, giving them a positive self-fulfilling prophecy- not all are negatively impacting students like some sociologists portray it to be. Both internal and external factors can be linked here-for example the things teachers believe about working class pupils can cause these things to come true (self-fulfilling prophecy). This underachievement could directly result in material deprivation, proving factors link directly both internally and externally. In conclusion, there are several, troubling factors contributing to class underachievement whether it be internal, external or both and it directly impacts working class students' education. These factors all have their criticisms and ultimately lead to failure in working class students' education. The interaction between internal Name: Emily Hilton and external factors consists of ideas like: poverty at home, leading to bullying and stigma among peers, can cause absence issues inside school and these can be seen to have a direct impact on everyone. 19/20 A very articulate and well-developed response to the question showing a huge improvement in essay skills. Looking back at the work you did over summer, the improvement in your essay writing skills is obvious and clearly you have been working very hard to respond to the feedback I have given you and apply everything we have learnt in lessons. I am struggling to give you any general targets for this essay as it meets all the criteria for the highest banding: Detailed knowledge of a range of relevant material on the differences in educational achievement according to social class. Good understanding of the question and of the presented material. Acknowledgement that all working-class or middle-class groups have similar experiences and/or levels of achievement. ● Appropriate material applied accurately to the issues raised by the question. • Analysis and evaluation is explicit and relevant. ● Evaluation is developed, for example, through a discussion of the relative importance of material, cultural and school factors for class differences in educational achievement. Analysis shows a clear explanation and draws appropriate conclusions. A fantastic effort and you should be very proud of yourself! The difficulty for essay writing from here is meeting all of these criteria within timed conditions. We can work on this and you will naturally get better at this with practice. It is very hard to write this much in timed conditions (but you wouldn't need to write this much to achieve the highest marks). One useful technique with revision is to write essay plans for past paper questions; this can help you stay focused on the question and will help ensure all material is relevant. Something we can discuss at a later date!